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Apa yang terlintas di pikiran anda ketika mendengan petir? Beberapa orang akan menjawab sebagai gemuruh, panas, berbahaya dan menggelegar. 

 

Bagaimana proses terjadinya petir? Petir merupakan gejala alam yang bisa kita analogikan dengan sebuah kapasitor raksasa, dimana lempeng pertama adalah awan (bisa lempeng negatif atau lempeng positif) dan lempeng kedua adalah bumi (dianggap netral). Seperti yang sudah diketahui kapasitor adalah sebuah komponen pasif pada rangkaian listrik yang bisa menyimpan energi sesaat (energy storage). Petir juga dapat terjadi dari awan ke awan (intercloud), dimana salah satu awan bermuatan negatif dan awan lainnya bermuatan positif.

 

Petir terjadi karena ada perbedaan potensial antara awan dan bumi atau dengan awan lainnya. Proses terjadinya muatan pada awan karena dia bergerak terus menerus secara teratur, dan selama pergerakannya dia akan berinteraksi dengan awan lainnya sehingga muatan negatif akan berkumpul pada salah satu sisi (atas atau bawah), sedangkan muatan positif berkumpul pada sisi sebaliknya. Jika perbedaan potensial antara awan dan bumi cukup besar, maka akan terjadi pembuangan muatan negatif (elektron) dari awan ke bumi atau sebaliknya untuk mencapai kesetimbangan. Pada proses pembuangan muatan ini, media yang dilalui elektron adalah udara. Pada saat elektron mampu menembus ambang batas isolasi udara inilah terjadi ledakan suara. Petir lebih sering terjadi pada musim hujan, karena pada keadaan tersebut udara mengandung kadar air yang lebih tinggi sehingga daya isolasinya turun dan arus lebih mudah mengalir. Karena ada awan bermuatan negatif dan awan bermuatan positif, maka petir juga bisa terjadi antar awan yang berbeda muatan.


 

Petir pada alam merupakan peristiwa alami locatnya muatan muatan listrik diantara awan ke awan atau awan ke permukaan bumi. Persyaratan utama terjadinya locatan muatan elektron di awan dimulai dari pergerakan angin ke atas didalam awan Cumulus yang kuat. Dilaporkan kecepatan yang dapat dicapai mencapai 150 km/jam. Di dalam awan, uap uap air berkondensasi menjadi partikel air yang lebih kecil lagi namum partikelnya lebih stabil. Bila ketinggian awan Cumulus tersebut cukup tinggi, maka pergerakan angin didalam awan tersebut dapat mempunyai suhu dibawah 0 derajat celcius. Hal ini menyebabkan partikel air didalam awan membeku, membentuk partikel es. Melalui proses resublimasi, berubahlah fisik partikel air ini. Sejalan dengan waktu, bergabunglah beberapa partikel es menjadi partikel kumpulan es yang besar dan berat. Partikel salju ini akan jatuh karena daya gravitasi atas beratnya sendiri ke permukaan bumi. Pada stadium ini, terpecah beberapa kristal es yang lebih kecil dan ringan dari kumpulan kumpulan es yang lebih berat. Perpecahan ini memecah juga struktur elektron didalamnya. Hal ini mengakibatkan kumpulan es yang lebih berat akan jatuh ke lapisan awan dibawahnya dan kumpulan ini mempunyai muatan negative. Sedangkan partikel es yang terpisah dari kumpulan es berat, akan tertiup angin didalam awan ke arah lapisan atas awan. Hal ini menjadikan lapisan awan dibagian atas mempunyai muatan postive. Peristiwa ini mengakibatkan terkutubnya listrik di awan atas 2 kutub berbeda (positve dibagian atas dan negative dibagian bawah awan). Besarnya muatan atas terkutubnya listrik di awan bergantung dari volume dari awan tersebut.

 

Rata rata setiap petir mempunyai 4 hingga 5 jalur utama akibat ionisasi. Persiapan pelepasan elektron melalui jalur ini membutuhkan waktu sekitar 0,01 detik, setelah itu terjadi petir dengan waktu trasfer sekitar 0,0004 detik. Setelah terjadinya petir, membutuhkan waktu istirahat (0,03 – 0,05 detik ) untuk mempersiapkan kembali petir berikutnya. Diketahui pernah terjadi hingga 42 petir terus menerus tanpa henti. Rata rata kuat arus dalam petir sebesar 20.000 ampere. Dengan kekuatan arus ini, mengalir elektron dari awan menuju permukaan tanah. Hal ini disebut juga, petir negative. Pada kasus yang jarang, kadang dijumpai locatan listrik pendek dari permukaan tanah (ujung pohon, ujung menara dsb). Ini disebut petir positive. Petir positive diketahui hanya mempunyai satu jalur utama terjadinya loncatan. Tapi petir positive mempunyai kuat arus yang lebih tinggi dari petir negative (sebesar 300.000 Ampere). Terjadinya petir positive hanya sekitar 5% dari total terjadinya petir. Loncatan petir dapat terjadi sejauh beberapa kilo meter, antara awan dengan permukaan tanah. itulah sedikit yang bisa kita pelahari tentang petir, semoga saja damai senantiasa.

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